Natural sunlight and a slice of lime could potentially be the answer to the global water crisis, affecting millions of individuals worldwide who do not have access to water filtration services. Found to effectively remove all detectable levels of harmful bacteria such as E. coli, sunlight and lime work together as powerful disinfectants. Perhaps the most amazing part is that it only takes 30 minutes for this effect to take place, making it extremely fast as well.
The news could also prove useful for many first world citizens, who may not have access to water purification systems while traveling or even just looking to reduce their bacteria content in local water. While certainly no substitute for a powerful reverse osmosis or carbon filter with regards to the removal of heavy metals and other chemicals, the health-promoting combination can aid any water supply. In fact, adding lime or enjoying water with lemon is an extremely effective way to fight unwanted fat and boost your immunity.
On a larger scale, many countries are continually searching for ways to reduce the death toll from water-related illnesses. As a result of drinking seriously contaminated water, half of all hospital visits are a result of rampant bacteria and other water contaminants. On par with actually boiling water and other household treatments, lime and sunshine offer natural methods of combating the death toll as well as the infection rate — all at an extremely inexpensive price. Kellogg Schwab, the author of the study from Johns Hopkins University, explains:
“For many countries, access to clean drinking water is still a major concern. Previous studies estimate that globally, half of all hospital beds are occupied by people suffering from a water-related illness,” said Kellogg Schwab, PhD, MS, senior author of the study, director of the Johns Hopkins University Global Water Program and a professor with the Bloomberg School’s Department of Environmental Health Sciences. “The preliminary results of this study show solar disinfection of water combined with citrus could be effective at greatly reducing E. coli levels in just 30 minutes, a treatment time on par with boiling and other household water treatment methods. In addition, the 30 milliliters of juice per 2 liters of water amounts to about one-half Persian lime per bottle, a quantity that will likely not be prohibitively expensive or create an unpleasant flavor.”
In low-income regions, solar disinfection of water is one of several household water treatment methods to effectively reduce the incidence of diarrheal illness. One method of using sunlight to disinfect water that is recommended by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) is known as SODIS (Solar water Disinfection). The SODIS method requires filling 1 or 2 L polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic) bottles with water and then exposing them to sunlight for at least 6 hours. In cloudy weather, longer exposure times of up to 48 hours may be necessary to achieve adequate disinfection.
My main concern with this UNICEF recommendation is that bottles made from PET may leach various endocrine disrupting phthalates (surely they would know about that?). A far better recommendation would be to use glass bottles. Lead researcher Martin Wagner, at Goethe University in Frankfurt, and a colleague, used genetically engineered yeast to analyse 20 samples of mineral water. Nine samples came out of glass bottles, nine were bottled in PET plastic and two were in cardboard, juice-like boxes.
The specialised yeast, which changes colour in the presence of estrogen-like compounds, revealed estrogenic activity in seven of the nine plastic bottles (and both cardboard samples), compared with just three of the nine glass ones.
Overall, Wagner says, levels of these compounds in the water were surprisingly high.
German mineral water comes from natural springs. So, to see if the estrogenic compounds were actually coming from the water itself, Wagner emptied the bottles and replaced the water with a pure snail medium and a tiny species of snail that is especially sensitive to estrogenic compounds.
Eight weeks later, female snails living in plastic bottles had more than twice as many embryos inside their bodies compared to the glass-grown snails.
“Something from the plastic,” says Wagner, “must have leached out and changed the reproductive patterns of our snails.”
Wagner cautions against jumping to conclusions. Water is still a healthy beverage, he says. And until the compounds at work in the snail study have been identified, it’s not possible to know if PET plastics pose a human health risk.
Still, tests in his lab have shown far less estrogenic activity in tap water than in even the most “ultra-pure” bottled waters.
“Having done all of these experiments, I started drinking tap water,” says Wagner. “It might have other stuff in it, but at least it doesn’t have estrogenic compounds.”
Shanna Swan, an epidemiologist at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry in New York. says, it may also be time to reconsider how safe so-called “safe” plastics really are.
“I used to say: ’4, 5, 1, and 2. All the rest are bad for you,’” she says, referring to the recycling codes on plastic products.
“Now, I’m not saying that anymore. We don’t know about 4, 5, 1, or 2. This raises questions about all plastic bottles.”
Previous research has focused on plastics containing the chemical bisphenol-a (BPA). During that time regular PET plastic water bottles have maintained a reputation as safe, at least as far as human health is concerned.
In a review published by Environmental Health Perspectives, Leonard Sax investigated evidence that bottles made from PET may leach various endocrine disrupting phthalates. He also considered evidence that leaching of antimony from PET containers may lead to endocrine-disrupting effect. But then again as we have mentioned in some of our previous articles, the UN is a part of the One World Government plan, along with its Eugenics vaccine agenda, so perhaps we should be unsurprised at the UNICEF’s SODIS recommendation.
* Phthalates leach from the plastic into lower pH products such as soda and vinegar more readily than into bottled water/
* Temperature also appears to influence the leaching both of phthalates (and antimony), with greater leaching at higher temperatures
* Combining both variations of low PH and high-heat exposure could result in an even higher leaching of phthalates
* Variations in the composition and manufacture of PET may also influence the leaching of these substances into the contents of the bottle. PET is typically a homopolymer, but some copolymers are also categorized as PET (copolymers have been found to be less vulnerable to degredation, thus leaching less)
The author concludes that the evidence suggests PET bottles may yield endocrine disruptors under conditions of common use, particularly with prolonged storage and elevated temperature. And because of the widespread use of PET plastic worldwide, more research is needed to clarify how PET containers may be contaminated by endocrine-disrupting chemicals.
Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted.
Until then it would be safer to use glass bottles and drink water from the tap via a good filter.
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